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The study estimates the social demand for key benefits provided by Aleppo pine forests in Catalonia that can be enhanced by management. These so-called externalities are the side effects of forest management on citizens’ welfare and can be either positive or negative.

Assessing changes in the extent and management intensity of land use is crucial to understanding land-system dynamics and their environmental and social outcomes. Yet, changes in the spatial patterns of land management intensity, and thus how they might relate to changes in the extent of land uses, remains unclear for many world regions.

The concept of social capital within the forest governance field encompasses networks, norms and values of local communities that determine cooperation and contribute to their development.

Assessments of land-system change have dominantly focused on conversions among broad land-use categories, whereas intensity changes within these categories have received less attention.

The study assesses the feasibility of a mechanism of payment for ecosystem services to improve the provision of ecosystem services by private forest owners.

Explorations of future land use change are important to understand potential conflicts between competing land uses, trade-offs associated with particular land change trajectories, and the effectiveness of policies to steer land systems into desirable states.

Assessments of ecosystem services (ES) and biodiversity provide a comprehensive view of the links between landscapes, ecosystem functioning and human well‐being.

Understanding patterns, dynamics, and drivers of land use is crucial for improving our ability to cope with sustainability challenges.

Climate change resulting from fossil fuel emissions could create adverse conditions for the forest sector if policy to mitigate the effects of climate change is not actively implemented